In any emergency, it is always best to communicate with a professional for advice or request aid.
Regardless of the situation the following are important:
Do not leave an injured individual to make a call until the individual is stable. This means breathing, conscious, normal blood pressure or pulse suggest stability.
- Blood Pressure
The injured person's blood pressure should be taken IF the necessary equipment is available. If the 'upper' number is less than 100, this should be a cause for concern. Also the blood pressure should be monitored.
- Pulse - if the injured person's pulse is greater than 90, this is also cause for concern.
The pulse can be felt on the arm (wrist) or neck.
| SHOCK |
|Shock can be caused by any serious condition such as bad burn, broken bone, severe bleeding, or deep cut. Victim may appear clammy with drops of perspiration on the chin, forehead, palms or elsewhere. They may be thirsty or feel sick to their stomach. The length of time it takes shock to develop may be anywhere from several minutes to several hours. If severely injured, treat the victim for shock immediately.
- Have them lie down. Cover with blankets if the weather is cold. If the weather is hot do not cover them.
- Small drink of warm or cool water if they are completely conscious. Do not give water if they have abdominal injury or pain, or if they fell like vomiting.
- Keep the victim quiet as movement may increase the pain.
| FAINTING |
|Fainting or becoming unconscious may occur without there being any serious injury.
- Check for serious injury, i.e., broken arm, head injury, did they hurt themselves when they went down, etc.
- Have them lie down (10 minutes.
- Loosen any tight clothing
- As they feel stronger, gradually have them resume activity. If they continue to feel fain, have them lie down again.
- If they do not improve or have other injuries, get professional help.
| WOUNDS |
Rule of thumb: The wetter the wound, the wetter the treatment; the dryer the wound, the dryer the treatment.
- Clean any small wound using large quantities of clean water.
- Gently clean with antiseptic soap if available.
- Apply a sterile dressing.
- Leave initial sterile dressing on 6-12 hours and then change regularly.
- Small wounds may be best left without dressing unless in contact with clothing.
|Infected wounds - wounds that have become red, tender and swollen (possibly with pus).
- Apply direct pressure with a clean pad (sterile cloth) on the bleeding part. If bleeding is severe continue depressing until bleeding stops. If bleeding is severe you may not have time to get sterile cloth.
- Apply enough pressure to stop bleeding. Artery bleeding may require substantial pressure.
- When bleeding is stopped with padding, leave the padding on with pressure. Don't remove for 4-6 hours and seek medical care.
| ANIMAL BITES |
|Dogs and other animals - spread rabies, therefore, if someone has been bitten the animal should be confined until it can be determined if they have rabies. The observation period should be for a minimum of 1 month. If you must shoot it, do not shoot it in the head as the brain is needed to determine if it has rabies. If the animal is not confined or escapes, rabies shots are essential.
- Wash the bite immediately under running water with soap and seek professional care at once.
| FRACTURES | SPRAINS (Not Including Spine Fractures) |
- Have the person lie down unless there is danger of additional injury.
- Do not move the person, cover if they are cold
- Call for emergency help
|Sprains - signs are pain, swelling and tenderness. It may be difficult to tell the difference between a fracture and a sprain.
- Have the person lie down and place sprained limb on a pillow slightly higher than the rest of body.
- Apply cold for at least 1/2 hour. Do not use heat.
- Keep the part quiet.
- Get medical help to be sure nothing is broken.
| BURNS |
- Household chemical spilling onto the skin or in the eye - wash off instantly with lots and lots of water.
- For skin burns, after washing apply a sterile dressing and contact a physician.
- For eye exposure, after washing, cover loosely with sterile cover and seek medical care.
|Sunburn - increase sun exposure on a daily basis in increments of 15 minutes a day. Sunburn is possible on a cloudy day as well. The higher the altitude, the faster the burn condition may develop.
- Keep sunburned areas dry, do not use any tape.
- Do not break any blisters; they act as bandage.
- If blisters are open, treat as an open wound. (See Wound information above.)